Friday, June 24, 2016

The Girl Downstairs (1938)

The Girl Downstairs is a 1938 romantic comedy directed by Norman Taurog, who also directed Boys Town, Broadway Melody of 1940, Room for One More, and many Elvis movies. The film pairs Franchot with Franciska Gaal, a Budapest-born actress who starred in a handful of American films before returning to her homeland in 1940. It also features a great supporting cast including Walter Connolly, Reginald Gardiner, Rita Johnson, and Billy Gilbert.

Remember when Cary Grant sings the line "must you be so darn delightful?" to Deborah Kerr as they dance together on their last night of the cruise in An Affair to Remember? I could definitely direct that line to The Girl Downstairs! It's a shame that it doesn't get more exposure, because the film is really "so darn delightful"!

Franchot Tone is Paul Wagner, a wealthy playboy wooing Rosalind Brown (Rita Johnson). Feeling drunk and amorous, Paul shows up uninvited to Rosalind's house. Rosalind likes Paul in return, but her father (Walter Connolly) loathes him. Mr. Brown assembles all of the family's servants to get a good look at Paul, before he instructs them to bar him access to the house. One servant, scullery maid Katerina (Franciska Gaal), is not present. Knowing that she has no way of recognizing him, Paul schemes to use Katerina to gain access to the house. Katerina, a sweet, lonely girl from the old country, is attracted to Paul, disguised in his chauffer's uniform, at once. When Paul makes a date with her for an upcoming carnival, the sheltered Katerina is delighted. Paul's plan is to take Katerina home as soon as possible in order to sneak into the Brown's house to see Rosalind. Katerina, however, takes her time at the carnival, enjoying each ride and game.  In the car ride home, Katerina is worried about Paul using his employer's car to take her out (remember she thinks he is a servant as well), but quickly drops the subject when Paul kisses her on the cheek.

Paul is amused by Katerina's sweetness, but still has his heart set on the glamorous Rosalind. When Rosalind send her scullery maid to Paul's house, Paul answers the door in his regular clothes. Thinking on his feet, Paul says he likes to dress up in his employer's fine clothes when the employer is away. When Katerina disapproves of this behavior, Paul quickly runs into another room and changes clothes with his chauffer again. An argument between Paul and a visiting friend leads Katerina to think that Paul has been fired from his position and that she's responsible for it. Paul sees how attached Katerina is becoming and decides it's time to confess the truth about his identity and cancel their next date.

Katerina receives Paul's "Dear John" letter and absolutely adores it. She cherishes the page and the lines on it, because, you see, Katerina is unable to read. Still feeling guilty that Paul has lost his job, the sweet servant arrives at Paul's house for their next date with an old, beat-up taxi cab. When Paul realizes that Katerina's waiting outside, he puts on the chauffer's uniform one last time. He finds her inside the old jalopy and realizes that she's spent her entire savings (meant to buy a cow for her family in the old country) on it. Paul comforts her and you can see the change from amusement to tenderness in his eyes. When he inquires about the letter and she holds it up to him upside down, Paul realizes that Katerina cannot read and is still unaware of his ruse. When she asks him to read it to her, he says "I love you very much, Katerina. You're the nicest girl I've ever known. Your own, Paul" and tears up the actual letter before passionately kissing her.

Franchot was so skilled in these moments of quiet intensity. You view the precise moment he falls in love with Katerina. He doesn't shout it from the rooftops. It's there in his eyes. (I sighed in satisfaction the first time I watched this romantic scene and in every viewing of it since then!)  I find that many of Franchot's most powerful moments are in his quiet emotional reactions. You see it here and in films like Three Comrades and The Bride Wore Red. Using expressive eyes that unveil the character's true feelings is something that many classic actresses excel at, but I haven't found the same to be true in a lot of male actors of that era. I've said it before, but the unique vulnerability and unwavering strength that Franchot instills in his characters is what set him apart from other male actors and stole my heart as a viewer.

This was my first Franciska Gaal movie and I found her to be perfect in the role of the smitten servant. The film plays up Franciska's Hungarian roots and while it works here, I could see how it might grow old for audiences if she appeared with braids, wooden shoes, and innocence in every picture she did. Although I haven't seen her other work, it does appear that she was typecast in this kind of role in her American films.

As the film draws to its conclusion, Paul must decide how and when to tell Katerina the truth about himself. There's also Rosalind and her father to contend with, and they have a surprise in store for Paul as well. There are far too many Franchot films that are rarely screened and mostly unavailable, and unfortunately, this lovely romance is one of them.

Wednesday, June 22, 2016

Helen Ferguson on Franchot Tone

Helen Ferguson as an actress in the 1920's (left) and a
publicist at an event in the early 1960's (right).
Helen Ferguson was an actress-turned-publicist who represented many of classic Hollywood's biggest stars—Barbara Stanwyck, Loretta Young, Henry Fonda, Jeanette MacDonald, and so on. In the 1940's, Helen became Franchot's public relations counselor. In 1948, Helen shared her thoughts on Franchot with Screenland magazine:
He has a sense of humor as gay and sprightly as a leprechaun's—but that's his secret. On the surface, even he has accepted the Tone legend. Sophisticated, erudite, aloof—all the admirable but chilling synonyms for Tone which have become his tag in Hollywood. But casual? Indifferent, my eye! The man is shy. Honest to goodness shy. Things matter greatly to Franchot but, like the leprechaun's charming approach to reality, his disguise of such caring is complete.
A master at the art of underplaying—his life is slanted on that side, too. To find out how different you chuck your own inhibitions and rush right against the barrier of his reticence. And then there's fun. Like the night of the premiere at Westwood. Thinking it was a benefit preview, having practically invited myself to dinner at the Tones', my social conscience was slightly eased when I invited them to go to the "preview" with me afterward, and bought tickets. Jean accepted eagerly and Franchot was told. We started off, and wound up in a premiere crowd—lights, shimmering gowns, radio broadcast—the works. Franchot wanted to turn back. Jean and I kept our enthusiasm at a pitch, ignoring Franchot's murmer, "I'll just leave you girls and pick you up later"—and other not so murmured negative sentiments. Next thing, we were in the crowd, eager faces were grinning, calling Franchot's name, applauding as they recognized him. Someone opened the car door, asked him to the mike, ignored his "Oh, you don't want me"—light bulbs flashed—Franchot was at the mike, his crooked grin showing, saying gracious, humorous things, with a twinkle in his eyes. As photogs and fans yelled, "Hello, Franchot!" he tossed it off. "They're just glad to see anybody," he said.
That's the night I got to know the guy. Set my policy. Just surprise him into the spotlight—where folks want him, and which, on him, looks good. Surprise him all you want, but don't take it for granted that you know how to "handle" Tone. He's full of surprises himself. Remember the leprechaun grin—and remember that leprechauns aren't like people, bound by the material importances. Remember they are bound by their own delightful sense of values, and Franchot is bound by his. Shy, sensitive, considerate, but elusive—and a hunk of granite when "no" is what he really means. You won't go wrong if you listen to the tone of Tone's voice.
The Screenland article in which Helen's comments appeared also included comments from Franchot's wife Jean, costar Janet Blair, and Jean's young sister Karol. I shared Jean Wallace's take on Franchot back in January. To read Jean's part of the article, please see Part 1 and Part 2.

Source: "Franchot's Femmes: Four Women in His Life Tell All, About the Suave and Elegant Mr. Tone." Screenland. July 1948. Vol 52, No.9.Page 42-43, 64-65.

Monday, June 20, 2016

The Gentle People (1939)

The Gentle People ran for 141 performances from January to May 1939 at the Belasco Theatre. The play, written by Irwin Shaw and directed by Harold Clurman, was a Group Theatre production and Franchot's first play in 6 years. The cast included: Franchot Tone, Sylvia Sidney, Sam Jaffe, Elia Kazan, Karl Malden, and Lee J. Cobb.

The play is about two men who fish in their downtime to escape everyday pressures. On one outing, a gangster named Harold Goff (Franchot Tone) demands protection money from Jonah Goodman (Sam Jaffe) and Philip Anagnos (Roman Bohnen). To save their boat and maintain peace, the fishermen pay him. Soon, through his romance with one of the men's daughters (Sylvia Sidney), Harold discovers that the humble, middle-aged guys have saved quite a bit of their hard-earned money. When a court of law does not protect the men from Harold's threats, they take the matter into their own hands. Jonah and Philip take the scheming gangster out for a boat ride and he never returns.
Franchot Tone and Sylvia Sidney in The Gentle People. Source:

Franchot in The Gentle People. Source: Life, February 6, 1939.

On February 6, 1939, Life magazine reported:
Where The Gentle People lags, it is supported by radiant acting from Franchot Tone, Sylvia Sidney and Sam Jaffe, all returned from Hollywood to Broadway, and from the Group company who have become past masters at U.S. realism.
Postcard promoting The Gentle People from my collection.
The back of the postcard includes a comment and critique section
for the play's audience members to complete.
There was much publicity surrounding Franchot's return to the New York stage, because it coincided with his divorce from Joan Crawford. Reporter Inez Robb was disappointed to find that the "never lovelier" Franchot darted into the Belasco Theatre and successfully dodged all questions about his personal life during the run of the play. Although Ms. Robb speculated that Franchot was completely over Joan, columnist George Ross predicted the Tones would reunite following a performance of The Gentle People, to which Franchot had given Joan tickets.

Franchot, who had been a celebrated young stage actor before he moved to Hollywood, dealt with a lot of putdowns and pondering in the gossip columns of the day. While he was busy rehearsing the play, most of the entertainment columnists were focusing on Franchot's "mighty, mighty purty" face, hinting that he'd been a failure at M-G-M, and questioning whether he could make it as an actor without Joan Crawford at his side. Once the play began its run, Franchot received rave reviews and the play was a major success. From 1939 on, Franchot would steadily perform in both films and plays.
Sylvia Sidney and Franchot Tone. Source:
Robb, Inez. "Valet Helps Franchot Tone Evade Persistent Press, Public." The Deseret News. February 14, 1939.
Ross, George. "Rumor Rumbles." The Pittsburgh Press. January 19, 1939.
"The Gentle People." Internet Broadway Database.
"The Gentle People." Playbill.

Saturday, June 11, 2016

Franchot's Lemon Pie Merengue (or so they say!)

I have a booklet titled Foods and Fashions of 1936 that the Fox Crane Theatre (Carthage, Missouri) sold for $1.00 in 1936. It includes a dedication to the recently deceased Will Rogers in the front. The rest of the booklet is all foods and fashions as the title suggests.  A photo of Franchot accompanies the recipe for lemon pie merengue. I think readers of the day were led to believe that movie stars personally provided these recipes, but it's much more likely that whoever created the booklet just paired a star's photograph with a recipe.

It's a neat little souvenir item, so I thought I'd share the Franchot page here and list all of the other actors/actresses featured.

Recipes (listed in order of appearance)
Richard Arlen: Shrimp a la Maryland
Ann Harding: English Tea Cake
George O'Brien: Swiss Steak Special
Carole Lombard: Clam Chowder
Warner Baxter: Veal en Casserole
Ruby Keeler: Cold Ham with Egg Salad
Franchot Tone: Lemon Pie Merengue
Norma Shearer: Jellied Pineapple Salad
Dick Powell: Corn Chowder
Dolores del Rio: Rice Spanish
Shirley Temple: Mammy's Pecan Squares
Bobby Breen: Strawberry Shortcake
Jane Withers: Party Chocolate Cake
Edward Everett Horton: Corned Beef and Potato Mixture
Fred Astaire: Chicken & Oysters a la Metropole
Ginger Rogers: Pimento Salad a la Parisian
James Cagney: Cream Onion Soup
Barbara Stanwyck: Cheese Cake Delight
Edward Arnold: Oyster Cocktail
Miriam Hopkins: Date Pudding Special
John Boles: Southern Entree
Rochelle Hudson: Spiced Plum Pudding
Gary Cooper: English Stuffing for Goose
Mae West: Salada de Tuna
Fredric March: Spiced Cheese Mould
Janet Gaynor: Vienna Coffee
Jack Benny: Southern Fried Chicken
Patsy Kelly: Angels on Horseback
Bing Crosby: Sponge Cake Surprise
Claudette Colbert: Frozen Graham Cracker Fruit Cake
Herbert Marshall: Norwegian Sturgeon
Sylvia Sidney: Chicken Livers and Mushrooms
Lanny Ross: Italian Macaroni
Glenda Farrell:  Jellied Fruit Salad
Joel McCrea: Frigoles with Cheese
Gracie Allen: Carmel Rhubarb Pie
George Burns: Beefsteak Pie

Fashion (listed in order of appearance)
Veree Teasdale
Adolph Menjou
Ida Lupino
Elissa Landi
Wendy Barrie
Frances Langford
Charlotte Henry
Marsha Hunt
Gail Patrick
Gertrude Michael
Florence Rice
Alrine Judge
Rosalind Keith
Patricia Ellis

The middle section includes general beauty tips, menu ideas, and cocktail recipes.

Friday, June 10, 2016

June Updates

TV Listings
As far as I know, there are no Franchot movies being shown on television this month. That doesn't mean he won't pop up on something you're watching! Sometimes his later tv performances don't appear on the listing sites.

The Blog
I already posted my take on The King Steps Out (1936) for the Royalty on Film Blogathon on June 3rd. I am not participating in any other blogathons this month, but have many posts planned for you here.

Elizabeth at The Prince of Hollywood: Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. blog nominated Finding Franchot for a Liebster Award. Thanks so much, Elizabeth!

Additional Site    
After working on this blog for over a year and realizing that I'm as enthusiastic as ever to share Franchot information with you, I decided to create an actual .com site. This blog will remain here at and will still be my main site and constantly updated. Now, I'll also have a fansite at that includes a feed for this blog, plus other features (a permanent slideshow of stunning Franchot portraits, a timeline of his life, a polished design) that I've been wanting to add.  It's by no means complete, but I'm looking forward to making it a full, comprehensive fansite in the future. Think of the Finding Franchot site as a portal to the Finding Franchot blog with bonus goodies!

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

The Liebster Award

Elizabeth who runs an amazing Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. blog nominated the Finding Franchot blog for the Liebster Award. Thanks so much for the nomination! If anyone who reads here is not familiar with A Prince of Hollywood, you must check it out. It's full of fascinating research on Fairbanks, Jr.

In order to accept the Liebster Award nomination, I am supposed to answer 11 questions asked by the blogger that nominated me and nominate other blogs and ask them my own 11 questions.

My Answers

What is your favorite quote from a movie?
I absolutely adore the 1946 Hitchcock film Notorious. When Devlin (Cary Grant) rescues a very ill Alicia (Ingrid Bergman), he tells her he loves her for the first time.
Alicia: Say it again, it keeps me awake.
Devlin: I love you.
This exchange always moves me. It's such a simple, lovely conversation during a charged moment in the film.

Who do you believe is the most underrated actor/actress in cinema history?
Is it too obvious to answer Franchot? Clearly, I value his performances and think that his talent goes unnoticed far too often. I think Franchot is often written off in cinematic history as Joan's husband or just a pretty 1930's face, when his varied and lengthy body of work negates that assumption.

Is there an actor/actress that you think is overrated? (Can be past or present)
Although she was involved in some great films, I've never been as impressed by Jennifer Jones as others seem to be. I like her, but I've never been wowed by her.

Name a movie you never get tired of watching no matter how many times you’ve seen it.
Billy Wilder's The Apartment. It has everything (comedy, romance, drama, tragedy), the dialogue is clever, and the characters are perfectly cast. It's my go-to movie for any mood.

What is your favorite genre (comedy, romance, drama, etc.) of film and why?
This is a tough one! I love a good comedy, but I do feel I'm more drawn to dramatic films as I get older. I'm not really sure that I have a favorite though!

Past or present, what is your favorite TV show?
Mad Men.

If you were to star in a movie, who would you want to play your romantic interest?
Franchot Tone (again, sorry for such an obvious answer!) I'd love to work opposite FT as the wisecracking Ann Sothern in Fast and Furious or the sweet Maureen O'Sullivan in Between Two Women!

Favorite movie adaptation of a book?
Rebecca. I've read the book many times and am a big fan of all of Daphne du Maurier's novels. The film version starring Laurence Oliver and Joan Fontaine is just as romantic and eerie as the novel.

What was the last movie you watched?
Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round (1934) starring Gene Raymond and Nancy Carroll.

Name a film that left a strong impression on you.
Rebel Without a Cause. I first saw this at 14 as a freshman in high school. I completely identified with the struggles and hopes of the three main characters. It was the first film I watched as a teen that seemed to truly convey the teen experience.

What film and/or actor made you fall in love with classic film?
Shirley Temple in Curly Top. I wrote a little about that in this post.

My Nominations
There are 2 blogs I'd like to nominate for the Liebster Award:
CineMaven's Essays from the Couch
Thoughts All Sorts

11 questions for my nominees:
1. What film would you recast and who would you choose to play the leads?
2. Which film do you think has the best soundtrack?
3. Favorite character actor/actress?
4. Favorite fictional villain in any film?
5. Name a classic film that you think is overrated.
6. Name a film that left a strong impression on you. (I'm re-using Elizabeth's question.)
7. Gene Kelly or Fred Astaire?
8. Name a well-known classic film you've never seen.
9. Who is your favorite silent film star/silent film?
10.Last film-related book you read?
11.Name a film blog(s) you read regularly.


Monday, June 6, 2016

Gloria Vanderbilt on Franchot Tone

Recently, I watched the HBO documentary Nothing Left Unsaid: Gloria Vanderbilt & Anderson Cooper. Although I think there are actually several things unsaid, Gloria's reflections on her life and conversations with son Anderson were fascinating. Gloria does not discuss Franchot at all in the documentary, but I knew that Gloria and Franchot worked together in a Colgate Comedy Hour special and in the Saroyan Pulitzer-winning play The Time of Your Life.

Knowing that they both indulged in many romances, I assumed that Franchot and Gloria probably had one of their own at this time so I picked up Vanderbilt's romance memoir It Seemed Important at the Time at my library. My hunch paid off. The memoir includes a brief 2-page chapter dedicated to Mr. Tone.
Franchot & Gloria. Source:

Franchot & Gloria. Source:
The Pulitzer-winning play The Time of Your Life starring Franchot and Gloria was produced by the New York City Theatre Company. During the play's run in January 1955, Franchot and Gloria engaged in an affair that Gloria says they both knew was "transient."

Gloria talks about how she idolized the handsome, charming Franchot of the screen during her youth. When Gloria joined the cast of The Time of Your Life, she and Franchot began a romance. According to Gloria, Franchot told her that he was "King Arthur searching for Lady Guinevere." She elaborates on her romance with Franchot:
We spent a lot of time at Birdland and other hot spots, and he sent flowers with notes saying things like, 'I love you in the many mirrors of the real, but really too.'...There was a gentleness about him, a fineness, but by the end of an evening he would descend fuzzily into a passive melancholy that reminded me of the Clifford Odets play Golden Boy. 'I have a lump inside and I drink to dissolve it.' But it was too late for that and I wasn't the drink he was looking for. Soon after, Sinatra winged along and we parted without even saying good-bye.
Gloria is not the first person to comment on the inherent pain within the fineness of Franchot. I'm working on a future post about this characteristic of Franchot's personality and his peers' observations about his use of alcohol to dull that pain.

Vanderbilt, Gloria. It Seemed Important at the Time: A Romance Memoir. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. Print.

Friday, June 3, 2016

The King Steps Out (1936)

Franchot Tone and Grace Moore. Source:
When I read that The Flapper Dame would be hosting a Royalty on Film blogathon, I knew that The King Steps Out would make a perfect post. The King Steps Out is a 1936 musical comedy directed by Josef von Sternberg, the man responsible for introducing Marlene Dietrich to American audiences and enhancing the Dietrich legend with his lighting techniques. The King Steps Out, a hard-to-find and rarely-referenced film today, stars Franchot Tone, fresh from his Oscar-nominated performance in Mutiny on the Bounty, and popular operatic soprano star of the 1934 hit One Night of Love, Grace Moore.

The film is set in Austria where Princess Elizabeth a.k.a. Sisi (Grace Moore) is scampering outside instead of attending her mandatory music lessons. An atypical princess, Sisi is an impetuous adventurer who makes light of every situation. While her sisters are being dutiful, Sisi receives word that the emperor's mother (and her own aunt) has sent for Sisi's sister Helena to marry Emperor Francis. Helena (Frieda Inescort) has no interest in marrying the emperor, because she happens to be in love with Captain Palfi. With a sister devastated by her forced nuptials and a mother  (Elisabeth Risdon) intent on them, Sisi knows she must intercede.

Without her mother's knowledge, Sisi poses as a deliverer of Helena's royal dress and scores a pass onto the palace grounds. Sisi's father, Duke Maximillian Joseph, is flawlessly played by Walter Connelly. As the hilarious Max, Connelly is too lazy and devoted to his beer to contest his ambitious wife's demands. Although he is supposed to be helping Sisi break up the wedding, Max spends most of his time in The Golden Ox drinking. Sisi is arrested for picking roses when an amused Emperor Francis Joseph (Franchot Tone) witnesses the crime. The emperor likes Sisi as soon as he realizes she is not affected in the slightest by his position of power. It is clear that Emperor Francis is a sheltered, good-natured man who is bored by the daily obligations that are dominated by his mother. Sisi ribs him about his mother's control before breaking out in song. 

Now, there are three things you should be prepared for when you watch The King Steps Out.
  1. Even though it was totally normal for the time period and for royal marriages, the fact that Sisi and the emperor are cousins may cool your response to their romance. Francis does not know Sisi's identity until after he's attracted to her, because they have not seen each other since they were children. Still, I couldn't help remembering that their domineering mothers were sisters whenever the couple's attraction was evident in scenes.
  2. Grace Moore breaks into song constantly. Sometimes it fits into the scene, sometimes it is completely out of left field. Many times it is very pleasant, but a few times it was so distracting from the story that it frustrated me. Despite the unnecessary songs, Grace Moore is so bubbly and expressive that you can't help but like her.
  3. Franchot Tone does not break into song (even though he was taking operatic singing lessons at the time). However, Franchot does sport a different look here: a full head of curly hair and gorgeous royal clothing that bring out his boyish good looks. He makes an extremely handsome emperor and delivers a remarkable performance in the part.

When he sneaks out in soldier's clothing to see Sisi,  Francis becomes aware of all the arbitrary social rules citizens have to abide by and sees his name associated with his mother's enforced laws. Sisi and a disguised Francis have a night out at the village fair held in the emperor's honor. As they spend more time together, the emperor forgets all about his arranged marriage to Helena. Francis is completely smitten with Sisi and tells her so, and aims to break free of his mother and become a respected leader in his own right. It's a sweet, lively romance and Grace Moore and Franchot make a good team in their scenes together. 

It wasn't until researching the movie for the blogathon that I discovered that the characters in this fictional story were based on real Austrian royalty.  Emperor Franz Joseph (also known as Francis) was born in 1830 and died in 1916 and was noted for his glowing and youthful looks.

The actual Franz & Elizabeth. Source:
Franz married Elizabeth (also known as Sisi) after he fell deeply in love with her and she ended up having a great deal of influence on his decisions. According to Britannica Online, the emperor was "respected but not really popular" at first, but in his later years, "became a universally revered man." Franz was known for being a "gentleman of irresistible charm in personal contact" and "devoted to his wife."

Sadly, the true story of Franz and Elizabeth turned out quite tragic. The couple's only son Rudolf committed suicide in 1889 and Elizabeth was assassinated by an Italian anarchist in 1898.

The film is occasionally shown on television, but its showings are few and far between. Unfortunately, it is not available on DVD at this time. It's regrettable that The King Steps Out is not showcased in a Josef von Sternberg DVD set, because it is a fine film with his notable touches and would receive a wider audience if paired with The Blue Angel.

Frank S. Nugent, reviewing for The New York Times, said the story was tenuous but:
its humor is pleasant and its score includes a charming group of Fritz Kreisler's more melodious compositions...[Grace Moore]breaks into song with or without provocation all during the picture as she rescues her sister from an unwanted marriage with the Emperor Francis Joseph...none other than our old friend Franchot Tone, with his hair in curls and spotless white uniforms to wear, then you may not be altogether astonished to hear that Miss Moore eventually takes her sister's place...Perhaps the nicest thing about the picture is Miss Moore's obvious anxiety to key her voice and her performance to the featherweight quality of the operetta. She overdoes it occasionally...She yet may become an accomplished comedienne. Mr. Tone, Victor Jory and the others contribute pleasantly, if less importantly, to the romance.

I hope you will sit down and watch The King Steps Out if you get the chance sometime! To check out more instances of royalty captured on film, visit the roster of blogs over at The Flapper Dame's site.


  • "Elizabeth". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 03 Jun. 2016
  • "Franz Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 03 Jun. 2016
  • Nugent, Frank S. "Grace Moore's First Operetta, 'The King Steps Out,' Opens at the Music Hall -- 'Florida Special' at the Rialto." The New York Times. 29 May 1936.